Core Staff

Prof. M Timm Hoffman
PhD (Cape Town)
email: Timm.Hoffman@uct.ac.za

RESEARCH INTERESTS
I am interested in how land use practices, particularly over the last 100 years, have impacted on the biodiversity and landscapes of the succulent karoo, nama-karoo and fynbos biomes in South Africa. I use a number of approaches (e.g. repeat fixed-point photography, ecological surveys, experimentation) to develop an accurate account of landscape and biodiversity change. This information informs conservation and management policy and also has relevance for the current focus on the long-term effects of climate change on the biota of the winter rainfall region. I have also established a long-term, interdisciplinary research programme in Paulshoek, a communal area in Namaqualand. The impact of natural resource use on Namaqualand's landscapes is understood in terms of the changing social and economic environments of the region.

TEACHING
I teach modules in undergraduate courses based on my research experiences in southern Africa and the American southwest. These include courses on the biomes of South Africa, land degradation and desertification, environmental change, inventory and monitoring, and the deserts of southern Africa. I also supervise Honours, MSc and PhD student projects which cover my range of research interests.

BACKGROUND
I was born and schooled in the eastern Cape, mostly in Port Elizabeth, although my undergraduate and honours degrees in Botany and Zoology were completed at the University of Cape Town (1981-1984). I returned to the Friendly City to start my MSc in 1985 at the then University of Port Elizabeth (now the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University) under the supervision of Richard Cowling. I upgraded my Masters and completed my PhD on the impact of grazing on the vegetation of the Sundays River Valley in 1989. This was followed by a year at the Jornada Long-Term Ecological Research site at Las Cruces, New Mexico in the USA where I worked with Walt Whitford and post-doc colleague Craig James from Australia. I returned to employment at the National Botanical Institute at Kirstenbosch in 1991 where I worked for ten years and led a national review of land degradation for South Africa. I joined the staff of UCT as the Leslie Hill Chair of Plant Conservation in 2001.

PUBLICATIONS

(i) Scientific articles

  1. Shiponeni N, Allsopp N, Carrick PJk and Hoffman MT (In Press). Competitive interactions between grass and succulent shrubs at the ecotone between an arid grassland and succulent shrubland in the Karoo. Plant Ecology. (Accepted 10 November 2010) [Ref: VEGE2262R1].
  2. Anderson PML and Hoffman MT (In Press). Grazing response in the vegetation communities of the Kamiesberg, South Africa: adopting a plant functional type approach. Journal of Arid Environments. (Accepted 28 October 2010) [Ref: JAE09-623R2].
  3. Hoffman MT and Rohde RF (In Press). Rivers through time: Historical changes in the riparian vegetation of the semi-arid, winter rainfall region of South Africa in response to climate and land use.  Journal of the History of Biology. (Published on-line on 29 July 2010). [DOI: 10.1007/s10739-010-9246-4]
  4. Hoffman MT, Madden CF, Erasmus K, Saayman N, Botha JC and Kruger R 2010. Measuring the impact of indigenous herbivores: reply to Kerley and Landman.  African Journal of Range & Forage Science 27(3): 181-183.
  5. Richardson D, Hoffman MT, Gillson L (In Press). Modelling the complex dynamics of vegetation, livestock and rainfall in a semi-arid rangeland in South Africa. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 27(3): 125-142.
  6. Anderson PML, Hoffman MT and O’Farrell PJ 2010. Above ground perennial plant biomass across an altitudinal and land-use gradient in Namaqualand, South Africa.  South African Journal of Botany 76: 471-481.
  7. Compton JS, Herbert CT, Hoffman MT, Schneider RR and Stuut J-B 2010.  A tenfold increase in the Orange River mean Holocene mud flux: implications for soil erosion in South Africa. The Holocene 20(1):115-122.
  8. Malgas RR, Potts A, Oettle N, Koelle B, Todd S, Verboom A and Hoffman MT 2010.  Distribution, quantitative morphological variation and preliminary molecular analysis of different growth forms of wild rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) in the northern Cederberg and on the Bokkeveld Plateau.  South African Journal of Botany 79: 72-81.
  9. O'Farrell PJ, Donaldson JS and Hoffman MT 2010.  Vegetation transformation, functional compensation, and soil health in a semi-arid environment. Arid Land Research and Management 24(1): 12-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1532498090343926
  10. Wigley BJ, Bond WJ and Hoffman MT 2010.  Thicket expansion in a South African savanna under divergent land use: local vs. global drivers? Global Change Biology 16(3): 964-976.
  11. Hoffman MT, Carrick PJ, Gillson L and West AG 2009. Drought, climate change and vegetation response in the succulent karoo, South Africa.  South African Journal of Science 105: 54-61.
  12. Hoffman MT, Madden CF, Erasmus K, Saayman N and Botha JC 2009.  The impact of indigenous ungulate herbivory over five years (2004-2008) on the vegetation of the Little Karoo, South Africa.  African Journal of Range and Forage Science 26(3): 169-179.
  13. Honglso E, Rohde R and Hoffman T 2009. Landscape change and ecological processes in relation to land-use in Namaqualand, South Africa, 1939-2005.  South African Geographical Journal 91(2): 63-74.
  14. O’Farrell PJ, Donaldson JS and Hoffman MT 2009.  Local benefits of retaining natural vegetation for soil retention and hydrological services.  South African Journal of Botany 75: 573-583.
  15. Thompson M, Vlok J, Rouget M, Hoffman MT, Balmford A and Cowling RM  2009. Mapping grazing-induced degradation in a semi-arid environment: a rapid and cost effective approach for assessment and monitoring.  Environmental Management 43(4): 585-596.
  16. Todd SW and Hoffman MT 2009. A fence-line in time demonstrates grazing-induced vegetation shifts and dynamics in the semi-arid Succulent Karoo. Ecological Applications 19: 1897-1908.
  17. Wigley BJ, Bond WJ, and Hoffman MT 2009.  Bush encroachment under three contrasting land-use practices in a mesic South African savanna.  African Journal of Ecology 47: 62-70.
  18. Hoffman MT and Vogel C 2008. Climate change impacts on African rangelands.  Rangelands 30(3), 12-17.  [ISSN: 0190-0528].
  19. O’Farrell PJ, Donaldson JS, Hoffman MT and Mader AD 2008.  Small mammal diversity and density on the Bokkeveld escarpment, South Africa - implications for conservation and livestock predation.  African Journal of Zoology 43: 117-124.
  20. Rahlao SJ, Hoffman MT, Todd SW and McGrath K 2008.  Long-term vegetation change in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa following 67 years of rest from grazing.  Journal of Arid Environments 72(5): 808-819.
  21. Rohde RF and Hoffman MT 2008. One hundred years of separation: The historical ecology of a South African ‘Coloured Reserve’.  Africa 78(2): 189-222. 
  22. Samuels MI, Allsopp N and Hoffman MT 2008.  Mobility patterns of livestock keepers in semi-arid communal rangelands of Namaqualand, South Africa.  Nomadic Peoples 12(1): 123-148.  [doi:10.3167/np.2008.120108] [ISSN 0822-7942]. [See http://www.isinet.com/journals]
  23. James I, Munro A, Hoffman T, O’Farrell PJ and Smart R 2007.  The economic value of flower tourism at the Namaqua National Park, South Africa. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences 10(4): 442-456.
  24. Foden W, Midgley GF, Hughes G, Bond WJ, Thuiller W, Hoffman MT, Kaleme P, Underhill L, Rebelo A and Hannah L  2007.  A changing climate is eroding the geographic range of the Namib Desert tree Aloe through population declines and dispersal lags.  Diversity and Distributions 13: 645-653.
  25. Gillson L and Hoffman MT 2007. Grazing and “degradation” – Response. Science 316(5831): 1565-1567. 15 June 2007.
  26. Allsopp N, Gaika L, Knight R, Monakisi C and Hoffman MT 2007. The impact of heavy grazing on an ephemeral river system in the succulent karoo, South Africa.  Journal of Arid Environments 71: 82-96.
  27. O’Farrell PJ, Donaldson JS and Hoffman MT 2007. The influence of ecosystem goods and services on livestock management practices on the Bokkeveld plateau, South Africa.  Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 122: 312-324.
  28. Anderson PML and Hoffman MT 2007. The impacts of sustained heavy grazing on plant diversity and composition in lowland and upland habitats across the Kamiesberg mountain range in the Succulent Karoo.  Journal of Arid Environments 70: 686-700.
  29. Cousins B, Hoffman MT, Allsopp N and Rohde RF 2007. A synthesis of social and biological perspectives on sustainable land use in Namaqualand.  Journal of Arid Environments 70: 834-846.
  30. Gillson L and Hoffman MT 2007. Rangeland ecology in a changing world.  Science 315(5808): 53-54. 5 January 2007.
  31. Hoffman MT and Rohde RF  2007. From pastoralism to tourism: The historical impact of changing land use practices in Namaqualand.  Journal of Arid Environments 70: 641-658.
  32. Hoffman MT, Allsopp N and Rohde RF  2007. Sustainable land use in Namaqualand, South Africa: Key issues in an interdisciplinary debate.  Journal of Arid Environments 70: 561-569.
  33. Picker MD, Hoffman MT and Leverton B  2007.  The density of Microhodotermes viator (Hodotermitidae) mounds in Southern Africa in relation to rainfall and productivity gradients.  Journal of Zoology 271: 37-44.
  34. Richardson FD, Hahn BD and Hoffman M.T. 2007. Modelling the productivity and sustainability of pastoral systems in the communal areas of Namaqualand.  Journal of Arid Environments 70: 701-717. 
  35. Baker LE and Hoffman MT. 2006. Managing variability: Herding strategies in communal rangelands of semi-arid Namaqualand, South Africa.  Human Ecology 34(6): 765-784.
  36. Duncan JA, Hoffman T, Rohde RF, Powell E and Hendriks HH. 2006. Long-term population changes in the Giant Quiver Tree, Aloe pillansii in the Richtersveld, South Africa.  Plant Ecology 185: 73-84.
  37. Krug CB, Esler KJ, Hoffman MT, Henschel J, Schiedel U and Jurgens N. 2006.  North-South cooperation through BIOTA: an interdisciplinary monitoring programme in arid and semi-arid southern Africa.  South African Journal of Science 102: 187-190.
  38. Rohde RF, Moleele NM, Mphale M, Allsopp N, Chanda R, Hoffman MT, Magole L and Young E.  2006. Dynamics of grazing policy and practice: environmental and social impacts in three communal areas of Southern Africa.  Environmental Science & Policy 9: 302-316.
  39. Fox, S.J., Hoffman, M.T. and Hoare, D. 2005.  The phenological pattern of vegetation in Namaqualand, South Africa and its climate correlates using NOAA-AVHRR data.  South African Geographical Journal 87(2): 85-94.
  40. Richardson, F.D., Hahn, B.D. and Hoffman, M.T. 2005.  On the dynamics of grazing systems in the semi-arid succulent Karoo: the relevance of equilibrium and non-equilibrium concepts to the sustainability of semi-arid pastoral systems.  Ecological Modelling 187(4): 491-512. 
  41. Hahn, B.D., Richardson, F.D., Hoffman, M.T., Roberts, R., Todd, S.W. and Carrick, P.J.  2005. A simulation model of long-term climate, livestock and vegetation interactions on communal rangelands in the semi-arid Succulent Karoo, Namaqualand, South Africa.  Ecological Modelling 183: 211-230. 
  42. Bolus, C., Hoffman, M.T., Todd, S.W., Powell, E., Hendricks, H. & Clark, B. 2004.  The distribution and population structure of Aloe pillansii in South Africa in relation to climate and elevation.  Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 59(2): 133-140.
  43. Petersen, A., Young, E.M., Hoffman, M.T., Wyn Jones, G.E. and Musil, C.F. 2004. The impact of livestock grazing on landscape biophysical attributes in privately and communally managed rangelands in Namaqualand. South African Journal of Botany 70(5): 777-783.
  44. Anderson, P, Hoffman, MT, and Holmes, P. 2004. The potential of Cephalophyllum inaequale for the restoration of degraded arid landscapes in Namaqualand, South Africa.  Restoration Ecology 12(3): 343-351.
  45. Riginos C., Hoffman M.T. 2003.  Changes in population biology of two succulent shrubs along a grazing gradient.  Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 615-625.
  46. Meadows M.E. & Hoffman M.T. 2003.  Land degradation and climate change in South Africa.  The Geographical Journal 169(2): 168-177.
  47. Hoffman M.T. and Cowling R.M. 2003.  ‘Enough to be considered useful’: John Acocks’ contribution to South African botany.  South African Journal of Botany 69(1): 1-6.
  48. Hoffman M.T. 2003.  ‘Nature’s method of grazing’: Non-Selective Grazing (NSG) as a means of veld reclamation in South Africa.  South African Journal of Botany 69(1): 92-98.
  49. Hoffman, M.T. and Meadows, M.E. 2003.  Measurement and perceptions of desertification in South Africa.  Annals of Arid Zone 42(3&4): 333-345.
  50. Meadows M E and Hoffman M T 2002.  The nature, extent and causes of land degradation in South Africa: legacy of the past, lessons for the future?  Area 34(4), 428–437.
  51. Todd S W & Hoffman M T. 2000.  Correlates of stocking rate and overgrazing in the Leliefontein Communal Reserve, central Namaqualand.  African Journal of Range and Forage Science. 17(1-3), 36-45.
  52. Hoffman M T & Todd S W 2000.  A national review of land degradation in South Africa: the influence of biophysical and socio-economic factors.  Journal of Southern African Studies. 26(4): 743-758.
  53. Todd S W & Hoffman M T 1999.  A fence-line contrast reveals effects of heavy grazing on plant species diversity and community composition in Namaqualand, South Africa.  Plant Ecology 142(1-2): 169-178.
  54. Hoffman M T & O’Connor T G 1999. Vegetation change over 40 years in the Weenen/Muden area, KwaZulu-Natal: evidence from photo-panoramas.  African Journal of Range & Forage Science 16 (2&3): 71-88.
  55. Milton SJ, Dean WRJ, Kerley GIH, Hoffman MT and Whitford WG 1998.  Dispersal of seeds as nest material by cactus wren.  Southwestern Naturalist 43(4): 449-452.
  56. James C D & Hoffman M T 1996.  Windows of fruit production in yuccas: A response to Pellmyr.  Oikos 75: 125-128.
  57. Dean WRJ, Hoffman MT and Willis CK 1996.  The light and the way in South African desertification research.  South African Journal of Science 92(4): 170-171.
  58. Dean WRJ, Hoffman MT, Kerley GIH et al. 1995.  Desertification in developed countries – in search of the silver bullet.  South African Journal of Science 91(5): 213-215.
  59. Dean W R S, Hoffman M T, Meadows M E & Milton S J  1995.  Desertification in the semi-arid Karoo, South Africa: Review and reassessment.  Journal of Arid Environments 30, 247-264.  (Also appeared under the following title and authorship:  Meadows M E, Milton S J, Dean W R J & Hoffman M T 1994.  Desertifikation im Bereich der Semiariden Karroo, SüdAfrika.  Eine Zusammenschau und Neubewertung.  Geoödynamik Band XV, 219-242). 
  60. Hoffman M T 1995.  Environmental history and desertification of the Karoo, South Africa.  Gionale Botanico Italiano (Italian Journal of Botany) 129(1): 261-273.
  61. Hoffman M T, Bond W J & Stock W D 1995.  Desertification of the eastern Karoo, South Africa: conflicting palaeoecological, historical and soil isotopic evidence.  Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 37, 159-177.
  62. Rutherford M C, O’Callaghan M, Hurford J L, Powrie L W, Schulze R E, Kunz R P, Davis G W, Hoffman M T & Mack F 1995.  Realized niche spaces and functional types: a framework for prediction of compositional change.  Journal of Biogeograhy 22, 523-531.
  63. Milton S J and Hoffman M T 1994.  The application of state-and-transition models to rangeland research and management in arid succulent and semi-arid grassy Karoo, South Africa.  African Journal of Range and Forage Science 11(1), 18-26.
  64. James C D, Hoffman M T, Lightfoot D C, Forbes G S and Whitford W G 1994.  Fruit abortion in Yucca elata and its implication for the mutualistic association with Yucca moths. Oikos 69, 207-216.
  65. Davis G W, Midgley G F and Hoffman M T 1994.  Linking biodiversity to ecosystem function: a challenge to fynbos ecology.  South African Journal of Science 90: 319-321.
  66. Hoffman M T, Midgley G F and Cowling R M 1994.  Plant richness is negatively related to energy availability in semi-arid southern Africa.  Biodiversity Letters 2, 35-38.
  67. Bond WJ, Stock W and Hoffman MT 1994.  Has the Karoo spread?: A test for desertification using stable carbon isotopes.  South African Journal of Science 90, 391-397.
  68. Hoffman M T 1993.  Major P.J. Pretorius and the decimation of the Addo elephant herd in 1919-1920: Important reassesments.  Koedoe 36(2), 23-44.
  69. James C D, Hoffman M T, Lightfoot D C, Forbes G S and Whitford W G 1993.  Pollination ecology of Yucca elata: An experimental study of a mutualistic association.  Oecologia 93, 512-517.
  70. Hoffman M T, James C D, Kerley G I H and Whitford W G 1993.  Rabbit herbivory and its effect on cladode, flower and fruit production of Opuntia violacea var macrocentra (Cactaceae) in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico.  The Southwestern Naturalist 38(4), 309-315.
  71. Boecklen W J and Hoffman M T 1993.  Sex-biased herbivory in Ephedra trifurca: the importance of sex-by-environment interactions.  Oecologia 96, 49-55.
  72. Hoffman M T 1992.  Functional dioecy in Echinocereus coccineus (Cactaceae): Breeding system, sex ratios and geographic range of floral dimorphism.  American Journal of Botany 79(12), 1382-1388.  (Plus publication of colour photographs of male and female E. coccineus flowers on front cover of issue advertising dioecy article).
  73. Hoffman M T and Cowling R M 1991.  Phytochorology and endemism along aridity and grazing gradients in the lower Sundays River Valley: Implications for vegetation history.  Journal of Biogeography 18, 189-201.
  74. Hoffman M T and Cowling R M 1990.  Desertification in the lower Sundays River Valley, South Africa.  Journal of Arid Environments 19, 105-117.
  75. Hoffman M T and Cowling R M 1990.  Vegetation change in the semi-arid, eastern Karoo over the last two hundred years: An expanding Karoo - fact or fiction?  South African Journal of Science 86, 286-294.
  76. Hoffman M T, Barr G D and Cowling R M 1990.  Vegetation dynamics in the semi-arid, eastern Karoo, South Africa: The effect of seasonal rainfall and competition on grass and shrub basal cover.  South African Journal of Science 86, 462-463.
  77. Palmer A R, Hobson C G and Hoffman M T 1990.  Vegetation change in a semi-arid succulent dwarf shrubland in the eastern Cape, South Africa.  South African Journal of Science 86, 392-395.
  78. Boonzaier E A, Hoffman M T, Archer F M and Smith A B 1990.  Communal land use and the `Tragedy of the Commons': Some problems and development perspectives with specific reference to semi-arid regions of southern Africa.  Journal of the Grassland Society of southern Africa 7, 77-80.
  79. Hoffman M T 1989.  A preliminary investigation of the phenology of subtropical thicket and karroid shrubland in the lower Sundays River Valley, S.E. Cape.  South AfricanJournal of Botany 55(6), 586-597.
  80. Hoffman M T, Cowling R M, Douie C and Pierce S M 1989.  Seed predation and germination of Acacia erioloba in the Kuiseb River Valley, Namib Desert.  South AfricanJournal of Botany 55(1), 103-106.
  81. Archer F M, Danckwerts J E and Hoffman M T 1989.  How economic are the farming units of Leliefontein, Namaqualand?  Journal of the Grassland Society of South Africa 6(4), 211-215.
  82. Hoffman M T 1988.  The pollination ecology of Aloe ferox Mill.  South African Journal of Botany 54(4), 345-350. [Reproduced in Haworthiad 4(2), 7-13: 1990].
  83. Hoffman M T 1988.  Rationale for karoo grazing systems: criticisms and research implications.  South African Journal of Science 84, 556-559.
  84. Hoffman M T, Moll E J and Boucher C 1987.  Postfire succession at Pella, a South-African lowland fynbos.  South African Journal of Botany 53(5), 370-374. 
  85. Hoffman M T and Mitchell D T 1986.  The root morphology of some legume spp. in the south western Cape and the relationship of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas with dry mass and phosphorus content of Acacia saligna seedlings.  South African Journal of Botany 52(4), 316-320.

(ii) Books and book chapters

  1. Jürgens, N. Schmiedel U and Hoffman MT (Eds.) 2010. The dynamics of southern African biodiversity in space and time. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek. (In Press).
  2. Hoffman MT, Schmiedel U, and Jürgens, N (Eds.) 2010. The dynamics of southern African biodiversity in space and time – Volume III: Integrated responses to land use and management.  In: Jürgens, N. Schmiedel U & Hoffman MT (Eds.): The dynamics of southern African biodiversity in space and time. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek. (In Press).
  3. Hoffman MT & Rohde RF 2010. An analysis of vegetation change in Namaqualand using repeat photography as the central tool.  In: Jürgens, N. Schmiedel U & Hoffman MT (Eds.): The dynamics of southern African biodiversity in space and time – Volume II: Regional patterns and processes. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek. (In Press).
  4. Rohde RF and Hoffman MT 2010. Landscape and vegetation change in Namibia since 1876 based on the photographs of the Palgrave Commission. In: Jürgens, N. Schmiedel U & Hoffman MT (Eds.): The dynamics of southern African biodiversity in space and time – Volume II: Regional patterns and processes. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek. (In Press).
  5. Schmiedel U, Linke T, Christiaan R, Falk T, Gröngröft A, Haarmeyer DH, Hanke W, Henstock R, Hoffman MT, Kunz N, Labitzky T, Luther-Mosebach J, Lutsch N, Meyer S, Petersen A,  Röwer IU, van der Merwe H, van Rooyen MW,  Vollan B, Weber B. 2010. Environmental and socio-economic patterns and processes in the Succulent Karoo – frame conditions for the management of this biodiversity hotspot.  In: Jürgens, N. Schmiedel U & Hoffman MT (Eds.): The dynamics of southern African biodiversity in space and time – Volume III: Integrated responses to land use and management. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek. (In Press).
  6. Hoffman, M.T., Rohde, R.F., Duncan, J. & Kaleme, P. 2010. Repeat photography, climate change and the long-term population dynamics of tree aloes in southern Africa.  In: Webb, R.H., Boyer, D.E. & Turner, R.M. (eds). Repeat photography: Methods and applications in the geological and ecological sciences.  Island Press, Washington DC.  (In press). See http://www.islandpress.com/bookstore/details.php?prod_id=2062 for the hard cover edition, and http://www.islandpress.com/bookstore/details.php?prod_id=2063 for the paper.
  7. Hoffman, M.T. & Todd, S.W. 2010. Using fixed-point photography, field surveys and GIS to monitor environmental change in Riemvasmaak.  In: Webb, R.H., Boyer, D.E. & Turner, R.M. (eds). Repeat photography: Methods and applications in the geological and ecological sciences.  Island Press, Washington DC.  (In press). See http://www.islandpress.com/bookstore/details.php?prod_id=2062 for the hard cover edition, and http://www.islandpress.com/bookstore/details.php?prod_id=2063 for the paper.
  8. O’Farrell, P.J., le Maitre, D.C., Gelderblom, C., Bonora, D., Hoffman, M.T. and Reyers, B. 2008.  Applying a resilience framework in the pursuit of sustainable land-use development in the Little Karoo, South Africa.  In: Burns M. and Weaver A. (eds). Exploring sustainability Science: A southern African perspective. African Sun Media, Stellenbosch. Pp. 383-432. ISBN 978-1-920109-51-6.
  9. Gibson, D., Paterson, G., Newby, T., Laker, M. & Hoffman, T. 2006.  Chapter 4: Land.  In: Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism.  South African Environment Outlook.  A report on the state of the environment.  Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria. Pp. 87-105.  ISBN 0-621-36422-3. 
  10. Hoffman, M.T. and Ashwell, A. 2001.  Nature divided: Land degradation in South Africa.  UCT Press, Cape Town.
  11. Rohde, R. F., Hoffman M. T. & Cousins B. 1999.  Experimenting with the commons - a comparative history of the effects of land policy on pastoralism in two former 'homelands'/'reserves', Southern Africa. In: McCarthy N., Swallow B., Kirk M. & Hazell P. (eds).  Property rights, risk and livestock development.  Washington, D. C.: International Livestock Research Institute. 
  12. Hoffman, M.T., Cousins, B., Meyer, T., Petersen, A. & Hendricks, H. 1999.  Historical and contemporary agricultural land use and the desertification of the Karoo landscape. In: Dean, W.R.J. & Milton, S.J. (eds), The Karoo: Ecological Patterns and Processes.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  Pp. 257-273.
  13. Hoffman, M.T. 1999.  Agricultural and ecological perspectives of vegetation dynamics and desertification.  In: Arnalds, O. & Archer, S. (eds.).  Rangeland desertification.  Kluwer, Dordrecht.  Pp. 115-130.
  14. Hoffman, M.T. 1997.  Human impacts on vegetation.  In: Cowling, R. M., Richardson, D. M. and Pierce, S. M. (eds).  Vegetation of southern Africa.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 507-534. 
  15. Cowling, R.M., Richardson, D.M., Schulze, R.E., Hoffman, M.T., Midgley, J.J. & Hilton-Taylor, C. 1997.  Species diversity at the regional scale.  In: Cowling, R. M., Richardson, D. M. and Pierce, S. M. (eds).  Vegetation of southern Africa.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 447-473.
  16. Palmer, A.R. & Hoffman, M.T. 1997.  Nama-Karoo.  In: Cowling, R. M., Richardson, D. M. and Pierce, S. M. (eds).  Vegetation of southern Africa.  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 167-188.
  17. May, H., Hoffman, M.T. & Marinus, T. 1996.  The case for the communally-managed reserves in semi-arid Namaqualand, South Africa.  In: Odada, E., Totolo, O., Stafford Smith, M. & Ingram, J. (eds).  Global change and subsistence rangelands in southern Africa: The impacts of climatic variability and resource access on rural livelihoods.  GCTE Working Document No. 20: 51-56.
  18. Hoffman M T 1996.  Nama Karoo and Succulent Karoo.  In: (eds) Low A B and Rebelo A.  Vegetation map of SA.  South African Association of Botanists and Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria.
  19. Hoffman M T, Bond W J & Stock W D 1995.  Desertification of the eastern Karoo, South Africa: conflicting palaeoecological, historical and soil isotopic evidence.  In: (eds). D A Mouat & C F Hutchinson.  Desertification in Developed Countries.  Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.  pp. 159-177.  (Same manuscript as journal article).
  20. Bullock P, Le Houérou H, Hoffman M T, Rounsevell M, Sehgal J & Varallyay G 1995.  Chapter 4: Land degradation and desertification.  In: (eds) Watson R T, Zinyowera M C & Moss R H.  Climate Change 1995.  Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses.  Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  pp. 171-189.
  21. Noble I, Gitay H, Hoffman M T & others 1995.  Chapter 3: Deserts in a changingclimate: impacts.  In: (eds) Watson R T, Zinyowera M C & Moss R H.  Climate Change 1995.  Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses.  Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).  Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.  pp. 159-170.
  22. Cowling R M, Gibbs Russell G E, Hoffman M T and Hilton-Taylor C 1989.  Patterns of plant species diversity in southern Africa.  In: (Ed) B J Huntley.  Biotic diversity in southern Africa.  Oxford University Press, Cape Town. pp. 19-50.
  23. Hoffman M T and Cowling R M 1987.  The physiognomy, phenology and demography of Karoo plants.  In: (eds) R M Cowling and P W Roux  Karoo ecology: a preliminary synthesis. Part II.  South African National Scientific Programmes Report No. 142, 1-34.  CSIR Pretoria.

(iii) Conference proceedings

  1. Schreiner, G.O., Pienaar, E., van Eeden, J.D., Hoffman M.T. and Carrick P.J. 2008.  An ecological evaluation of rehabilitation interventions on phosphate mined land in the West Coast Fossil Park from 1996-2008.  In: Fourie, A.B., Tibbett, M., Weiersbye, I.M. and Dye, P.J. (eds).  Mine Closure 2008.  Proceedings of the Third International Seminar on Mine Closure held in Johannesburg, South Africa, 14-17 October 2008.  Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth.  Pp. 799-807.  ISBN 978-0-9804185-6-9.
  2. Hoffman, M.T. 2004.  Co-operative research in Namaqualand, South Africa: Pressures, predictions and priorities. In: Sustainable use and conservation of biological diversity. A challenge for society. Symposium Report Part B. International Symposium, 1-4 December 2003, p. 133-137. Berlin, Germany. 
  3. Richardson F.D., Hahn B.D. & Hoffman M.T. 2004.  Understanding arid and semi-arid grazing systems: why both equilibrium and non-equilibrium concepts are inadequate.  In: (ed) S. Vetter.  Rangelands at equilibrium and non-equilibrium: Recent developments in the debate around rangeland ecology and management.  Papers from the International Workshop on “Rangelands at equilibrium and non-equilibrium” held at the VIIth International Rangelands Congress in Durban, South Africa, 26th – 27th July 2003.  Pp. 17-29.  ISBN 1-86808-609-7.
  4. Hoffman M.T. 2003.  Poverty as a cause of land degradation in South Africa.  In: (eds) N. Allsopp, A.R. Palmer, S.J. Milton, K.P. Kirkman, G.I.H. Kerley, C.R. Hurt, C.J. Brown.  Proceedings of the VIIth International Rangelands Congress held in Durban, South Africa, 26th July – 1st August 2003.  Pp. 445-451.  ISBN 0-958-45348-9.
  5. Hoffman M.T., Dean W.R.J. & Allsopp N. 2003.  Landuse effects on plant and insect diversity in Namaqualand.  In: (eds) N. Allsopp, A.R. Palmer, S.J. Milton, K.P. Kirkman, G.I.H. Kerley, C.R. Hurt, C.J. Brown.  Proceedings of the VIIth International Rangelands Congress held in Durban, South Africa, 26th July – 1st August 2003.  Pp. 166-176.  ISBN 0-958-45348-9.
  6. Wyn Jones G., Chanda R., Hoffman M.T. Majoro M, Thomas R. & Young E. 2003.  Reconciling ecological and human welfare objectives on semi-arid subsistence rangelands.  In: (eds) N. Allsopp, A.R. Palmer, S.J. Milton, K.P. Kirkman, G.I.H. Kerley, C.R. Hurt, C.J. Brown.  Proceedings of the VIIth International Rangelands Congress held in Durban, South Africa, 26th July – 1st August 2003.  Pp.1620-1627.  ISBN 0-958-45348-9.
  7. Rohde RH, Benjaminsen TA & Hoffman MT 2002.  Land reform in Namaqualand: Poverty alleviation, stepping stones and ‘economic units’.  In: (eds)  Benjaminsen TA, Cousins B & Thompson L.  Contested resources: challenges to the governance of natural resources in southern Africa.  Proceedings of an international symposium on ‘contested resources: challenges to Governance of Natural resources in Southern Africa: Emerging perspectives from Norwegian-Southern African collaborative Research held at the University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, 18-20 October 2000.  Programme for Land Agrarian Studies (PLAAS), School of Government, University of the Western Cape.
  8. Hoffman, M.T., Lindeque, L., Ntshona, Z.N. & Todd, S.W. 2000.  Land degradation in commercial and communal areas of South Africa: Preliminary results from a rapid participatory appraisal.  In: (Ed.) K Kellner.  Proceedings of a National Workshop: Appropriate Restoration Technologies in South Africa, held in Potchefstroom, 23-26 March 1998.  Pp. 15-31.
  9. Rohde, R., Hoffman, M.T.,  Cousins, B. 1999.  Experimenting with the commons: A comparative history of the effects of land policy on pastoralism in two former ‘reserves’ in Namibia and South Africa.  Paper delivered at International Symposium on Property Rights, Risk and Livestock Development held at Feldafing, Germany, 27 September to 1 October 1998.
  10. Witt, G.B., Moll, E.J., Beeton, R.J.S. & Hoffman, M.T.  1999.  Vegetation change in the eastern karoo (South Africa) from 1916 to 1992 using carbon isotopes analysis of historical wool staples.  In: (eds) Eldridge, D. & Freudenberger, D.  People and rangelands: Building the future.  Volume 1.  Proceedings of the VI International Rangelands Congress, held in Townsville, Queensland, Australia July 19-23, 1999.  Pp. 242-243.
  11. Palmer A.R., Ainslie, A.M. & Hoffman M.T. 1999.  Sustainability of commercial and communal rangeland systems in southern Africa?  In: (eds) Eldridge, D. & Freudenberger, D.  People and rangelands: Building the future.  Volume 2.  Proceedings of the VI International Rangelands Congress, held in Townsville, Queensland, Australia July 19-23, 1999.  Pp. 1020-1022.
  12. Todd, S. W., Seymour, C., Joubert, D. F. & Hoffman, M. T. 1998.  Communal rangelands and biodiversity: Insights from Paulshoek, Namaqualand.  Proceedings of conference “Policy-making for the sustainable use of southern African communal rangelands” held at the University of Fort Hare, 6-9 July 1998.
  13. Wyn Jones, R. G., Young, E. M., Hoffman, M. T., Magole, L., Petersen, A., Arntzen, J. & Majoro, M.  1998.  Global change and subsistence rangelands in southern Africa: An outline of a European Union funded project. Proceedings of conference “Policy-making for the sustainable use of southern African communal rangelands” held at the University of Fort Hare, 6-9 July 1998.
  14. Hoffman M T 1996.  The impact of the SADF on the Riemvasmaak environment between 1974-1994 and an outline of a monitoring programme for the region.  Proceedings of conference Reclaiming the land: from defence to development, held in Johannesburg from 13-14 March 1996.   Group for Environmental Monitoring (GEM), Johannesburg.
  15. Hoffman M T 1995.  Desertification of the Karoo, South Africa: A review of the recent research and current status of the debate. Proceedings of the National Research and Development Workshop on the Assessment and Monitoring of Desertification in South Africa held at Premos Conference Centre, Pretoria between 10-12 October, 1995.  pp. 21-36.  Department of Agriculture: Directorate of Resource Conservation, Pretoria.
  16. Hoffman M T 1993.  The potential value of historical ecology to environmental monitoring.  In: (eds) C Marais & D M Richardson.  Monitoring requirements for Fynbos management.  FRD Programme Report Series No. 11.  pp. 69-86.  December 1993.  ISBN 1-874916-16-0.  (Proceedings of a conference organised by the Fynbos Ecology Forum on "Monitoring requirements for fynbos management," held on 16 & 17 March 1993, at the Drostdy Museum, Swellendam).
  17. Hoffman M T 1992.  Proceedings of two workshops held under the auspices of the Arid Zone Ecology Forum on 27 and 28 November 1991, and directory of current research activity in the arid and semi-arid zone of southern Africa.  CSIR, Pretoria.

(iv) Scientific reports, theses and databases

  1. Swart, E. & Hoffman, M.T. 2006.  The population status of Aloe pillansii L. Guthrie in southern Namibia.  Unpublished report submitted to the South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.  February 2006.  58 pp.
  2. Hoffman, M.T., Desmet, P. And Le Roux, A. 2006.  Biological and social considerations for the inclusion of the ‘Mostert Properties’ into the Namaqua National Park corridor.  Confidential draft report submitted to the Leslie Hill Succulent Karoo Trust.  Leslie Hill Institute for Plant Conservation, University of Cape Town.  29 June 2006.  20 pp.
  3. Hoffman MT, Todd SW and Duncan J 2005.  Environmental change in Riemvasmaak 10 years after re-settlement.  Leslie Hill Institute for Plant Conservation, University of Cape Town, Cape Town and FARM-Africa.  July 2005.  117 pp.
  4. James, I., Hoffman, M.T., Cowling, R.M., Roberts, R., Campbell, B.M., Boumans, R. and Allsopp, N. 2005.  Valuing Namaqualand’s natural resources: The costs and benefits of communal, commercial and conservation land use practices in Namaqualand incorporating ecological, economic and social values.  Unpublished report submitted to Conservation International.  Leslie Hill Institute for Plant Conservation, University of Cape Town.  May 2005.  106 pp.
  5. Rohde RH, Hoffman MT & Allsopp N 2003.  Hanging on a wire: A historical and socio-economic study of Paulshoek village in the communal area of Leliefontein, Namaqualand.  Research Report No. 17. Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, School of Government, University of the Western Cape.  70 pp.  ISBN 1-86808-592-9.
  6. Rhode RH, Benjaminsen TA & Hoffman MT 2002.  Land reform in Namaqualand: Poverty alleviation, stepping stones and ‘economic units’.  Occasional Paper Series No. 16.  Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, School of Government, University of the Western Cape.  30 pp.  ISBN 1-86808-506-6
  7. Rohde, R., Hoffman, M.T., Cousins, B. 1999.  Experimenting with the commons: A comparative history of the effects of land policy on pastoralism in two former ‘reserves’ in Namibia and South Africa.  Occasional Paper Series No. 12.  Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, School of Government, University of the Western Cape.  32 pp.  ISBN 1-86808-447-7.
  8. Hoffman, M.T., Lindeque, L., Mapuma, M., Nel, L. & Rayi, T. 1999.  A rapid appraisal of the status of land degradation in the Eastern Cape.  Unpublished report. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town
  9. Arendse, A., Dannhauser, P., Penny, R. & Hoffman, M.T. 1999.  South African desertification directory.  Unpublished database.  National Botanical Institute, Cape Town. (Also available on NBI’s website: www.nbi.ac.za/landdeg).
  10. Lambey, S., Stewart, S.M., Majal, S. & Hoffman, M.T. 1999.  Bibliography of South African desertification literature.  Unpublished database. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.  (Also available on NBI’s website: www.nbi.ac.za/landdeg).
  11. Hoffman, M.T., Todd, S.W., Ntshona, Z.N. & Turner, S.D. 1999.  Land degradation in South Africa.  Unpublished Final report.  National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.  (Also available on NBI’s website: www.nbi.ac.za/landdeg).
  12. Hoffman, M.T., Petersen, A., Todd, S.W. & Rohde, R. 1998.  Global change and subsistence rangeland in southern Africa: Paulshoek Namaqualand.  Unpublished preliminary report and literature review.  NBI, Cape Town.
  13. Hoffman M T 1995.  Comments on “Conservation, reclamation and grazing in the northern Negev: contradictory or complementary concepts? by Avi Perevolotsky.  Pastoral Development Network Paper 38b: 10-13.  July 1995.
  14. Hoffman M T, Sonnenberg D, Hurford J & Jagger B W 1995.  The ecology and management of Riemvasmaak’s natural resources.  Unpublished report, National Botanical Institute and FARM Africa.  Cape Town, July 1995.  222 pp.
  15. Hoffman M T, Milton S J, Roux P W & Palmer A R 1994.  Report to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on climate change and desertification in South Africa.  (Unpublished Report, National Botanical Institute.  Cape Town, May 1994).
  16. Campbell B, Clarke J, Luckert M, Matose F, Musvoto C and Scoones I (Compilers with contributions by: Barbossa F, Chigume S, Coote C, Dhlamini R, Hailwa J, Hoffman M T, Kundhlande G, Kozanayi W, Ligavha M, Mangono J, Maruzane D, Matiza A, Mbewe M, Makuku SJ, Mudhara M, Munnise P, Mutsago J, Nyamadzawo Z, Sithole M, Tsinakwadi A and Thamage D) 1994.  Local-level economic valuation of savanna woodland resources: village cases from Zimbabwe.  Unpublished report of the Hot Springs Working Group, (January 1994) based on the results of a two-week workshop held at Hot Springs, southern Zimbabwe from August 23-September 3, 1993.
  17. Hoffman M T 1993.  Bibliography of southern African arid zone literature up to 1993.  Unpublished data base of over 6 000 references of southern Africa's arid zones made available to research communty on diskette.  2nd edition, July 1997.  3rd edition, July 2001.
  18. Hoffman M T 1991.  Report on the vegetation of the proposed Settler's Park National Botanic Garden.  Unpublished report, National Botanical Institute, Kirstenbosch.
  19. Hoffman M T 1989.  Vegetation studies and the impact of grazing in the semi-arid eastern Cape.  Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cape Town, Cape Town.  (June 1989). 283 pp.
  20. Hoffman M T and Urton N 1987.  Vegetation.  In: (compilers) P Martin and D Baird.  A Management Plan for the Zwartkops River Reserve.  University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth.
  21. Hoffman M T et al. 1987.  Vegetation.  In: (compilers) P Martin and G Kerley.  A preliminary survey of the biota of the Wildebeeskom, Camdeboo Education Centre.  University of Port Elizabeth, Port Elizabeth.
  22. Hoffman M T 1986.  Report to the Habitat Council on the erosion problem in the Paterson and Alexandria Districts, eastern Cape.
  23. Hoffman M T 1984.  Checklist of plant species at Rondevlei Bird Sanctuary, Cape Town.  Divisional Council of the Cape.
  24. Hoffman M T 1984.  Post-fire regeneration studies in Western Cape Province coastal foreland vegetation at Pella, South Africa.  Unpublished Botany (Honours) Thesis, University of Cape Town, Cape Town.  (December 1984).
  25. Hoffman M T 1983.  The grasslands of the Hluleka Nature Reserve.  Botany Club, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch.

(v) Popular articles and professional communications

  1. Hoffman M.T. 2009. Book Review: Rubio JL, Safriel U, Daussa R, Blum WEH and Pedrazzini F (eds).  Water scarcity, land degradation and desertification in the Mediterranean region: Environmental and security aspects.  Springer, The Netherlands. 2009. 156 pp.  ISBN 978-90-481-2525-8.  African Journal of Range & Forage Science 26 (3) : 193–194.
  2. Hoffman, M.T. 2006.  Book Review: Kate Showers, Imperial Gullies: Soil erosion and conservation in Lesotho.  South African Historical Journal 55: 234-237.
  3. Hoffman, M.T., O’Farrell, P. & Rohde, R. 2006.  Photographing our changing world.  Veld & Flora 92(1): 14-15.  March 2006.
  4. Duncan, J.D., Hoffman, M.T. & Rohde, R.F. 2005.  Is the flagship of the Richtersveld sinking? New information on the decline of Aloe pillansiiVeld & Flora 91(4): 180-181. December 2005.
  5. Hoffman M.T. & Rourke J. 2003.  The making of a legacy: Tributes to a plant lover – Leslie Hill 1908-2003.  Veld & Flora 89(2): 44.  June 2003.
  6. Todd, S. W. & Hoffman, M. T. 1998.  Communal rangelands in semi-arid South Africa.  Veld & Flora 84(3): 82.
  7. Todd, S. W. & Hoffman, M. T. 1998.  Fenced in and nowhere to go.  Veld & Flora 84(3): 82.
  8. Scogings P & Hoffman MT 1996.  The commons debate hots up: Global change and the future of southern Africa’s communal rangelands.  Bulletin of the Southern African Institute of Ecologists and Environmental Scientists 15(2): 18-20.
  9. Davis G W & Hoffman M T 1996.  Look what’s cooking at the Karoo Botanical Garden.  Veld & Flora 82(4), 102-104.
  10. Hoffman M T 1996.  “Things sweet to tast prove in digestion sour”.  Veld & Flora 82(4), 134.
  11. Milton S J, Dean W R J, Hoffman M T & Kerley G I H 1995.  Why can’t developed countries control desertification?  Bulletin of the Grassland Society of southern Africa 6(1), 15-17.
  12. Dean W R J, Hoffman M T, Kerley G I H & Milton S J 1995.   Desertification in developed countries: in search of the silver bullet.  South African Journal of Science 91, 213-215.
  13. Hoffman M T 1995.  Ecology and rural development. Bulletin of the southern African Institute of Ecologists and Environmental Scientists, 14(2), 28.
  14. Hoffman M T 1995.  Roasting in Riemvasmaak.  NBI Newsletter 22, 23-24.  April 1995.
  15. Dean W R J, Hoffman M T & Willis C K 1995.  The light and the way in South African desertification research.  South African Journal of Science 92, 170-171.
  16. Hoffman M T 1994.  The Arid Zone Ecology Forum.  Forum Botanicum 31(1), 1-3.  [ISSN 0015-847X March 1994].
  17. Hoffman M T 1994.  Desertification in Namibia: A conference on prevention.  Bulletin of the southern African Institute of Ecologists and Environmental Scientists 13(2), 14-17.
  18. Hoffman M T, Kerley G I H, Milton S J & DeanW R J 1994.  Desertification in developed countries.  Bulletin of the southern African Institute of Ecologists and Environmental Scientists, 13(3), 15-16.
  19. Hoffman M T 1993.  Visit of Henry-Noel Le Houerou.  Bulletin of the South African Institute of Ecologists 12(3), December 1993, p. 14.
  20. Hoffman M T 1992.  Long-term ecological research in the United States and South Africa. Bulletin of the South African Institute of Ecologists 11(1), 18-21.
  21. Hoffman M T 1992.  (Published as "Bulletin Correspondent for the Middle East").  South Africans abroad: A conversation with Karen Esler.  Bulletin of the South African Institute of Ecologists 11(1), 24-27.
  22. Pickett G A and Hoffman M T 1992.  Karosion: Soil erosion in the Karoo.  Veld & Flora 78(1), 8-9.
  23. Hoffman M T 1991.  Is the Karoo spreading?  Veld & Flora 77(1), 4-7.
  24. Midgley G F and Hoffman M T 1991.  Heuweltjies: nutrient factories.  Veld & Flora 77(3), 72-75.
  25. Stoltz C W and Hoffman M T 1989.  Can the ecological index method be used to assess condition of Valley Bushveld ? Dohne Agric 11(1), 23-25.
  26. Hoffman M T 1989.  Book Review:  Holistic Resource Management by A Savory.  Journal of the Grassland Society of South Africa 6(3), 173.  [Reproduced in the South African Institute of Ecologists Bulletin 9(1), 10-12: 1990].
  27. Hoffman M T 1988.  The fourth annual research meeting of the Karoo Biome Project: In search of a paradigm.  South African Institute of Ecologists Bulletin 7(2), 23-29.
  28. Hoffman M T and Everard D A 1987.  Neglected and abused- the eastern Cape subtropical thickets.  Veld & Flora 73(2), 43-45.
  29. Hoffman M T 1987.  The future management and control of the Cape Peninsula Nature area.  South African Institute of Ecologists Bulletin 6(1), 24-26.
  30. Palmer A R, Everard D A and Hoffman M T 1987.  Memorandum on the subtropical thicket and forest of the eastern Cape.  South African Institute of Ecologists Bulletin 6(2), 2-3.