PCU Publications

2015 - 2018

Papers in refereed scientific journals

  1. Arena G, van der Merwe H, Todd SW, Pauw MJ, Milton SJ, Dean WRJ and Henschel JR 2018. Reflections, applications & future directions of Long-Term Ecological Research at Tierberg. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 35(384): 257-265.

  2. Cramer MD, Power SC, Belev A, Gillson L, Bond WJ, Hoffman MT and Hedin L 2018. Are forest-shrubland mosaics of the Cape Floristic Region an example of alternate stable states? Ecography 42: 1-13. DOI: 10.1111/ecog.03860

  3. Hirsch H, Richardson DM, Impson FAC, Kleinjan C and Le Roux JJ 2018. Historical range contraction, and not taxonomy, explains the contemporary genetic structure of the Australian tree Acacia dealbata Link Tree Genetics and Genomes 14:49

  4. Diamond R and Jack S 2018. Evaporation and abstraction determined from stable isotopes during normal flow on the Gariep River, South Africa. Journal of Hydrology 559, 569-584

  5. Djukic I, Kepfer-Rojas S, Schmidt IK, Larsen KS, Beier C, Berg B, Verheyen K, Arena G et al. 2018. Early stage litter decomposition across biomes. Science of the Total Environment 626: 1-26.  

  6. Forbes CJ, Gillson L and Hoffman MT 2018. Shifting baselines in a changing world: identifying management targets in endangered heathlands of the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Anthropocene 22: 81-93

  7. Henschel JR, Hoffman MT, Walker C 2018. Introduction to the Karoo Special Issue: Trajectories of change in the Anthropocene. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 35: xx-xx. (In Press).

  8. Hoffman MT, Walker C, Henschel JR 2018. Reflections on the Karoo Special Issue: Towards an interdisciplinary research agenda for South Africa’s drylands. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 35: xx-xx.  (In Press).

  9. Hoffman MT, Skowno A, Bell W & Mashele S 2018. Long-term changes in land use, land cover & vegetation in the Karoo drylands of South Africa: Implications for degradation monitoring. African Journal of Range and Forage Science  35: xx-xx. (In Press).

  10. MacPherson AJ, Gillson L and Hoffman MT 2018. Climatic buffering and anthropogenic degradation of a Mediterranean-type shrubland refugium at its semi-arid boundary, South Africa. The Holocene 28(4): 651–666

  11. Marchant R, Richer S, Boles O, Capitani C, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Widgren M, Schrijver AP and others including Gillson L 2018. Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present. Earth-Science Reviews, 178, 322-378

  12. McAuliffe J, McFadden LD and Hoffman MT 2018. Role of aeolian dust in shaping landscapes and soils of arid and semi-arid South Africa. Geosciences 8: 171.

  13. Nenzhelele E, Todd SW and Hoffman MT 2018. Long-term impacts of livestock grazing in the Succulent Karoo: A 20-year study of vegetation change under different grazing regimes in Namaqualand. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 35: xx-xx. (In Press).

  14. Samuels I, Allsopp N and Hoffman MT 2018. Traditional mobile pastoralism in a contemporary environment: herd mobility in a spatially-constrained, semi-arid rangeland in Namaqualand, South Africa. Rangeland Ecology and Management. (In Press).

  15. Scott SL, Rohde RF and Hoffman MT 2018. Repeat Landscape Photography, Historical Ecology and the Wonder of Digital Archives in Southern Africa. African Research and Documentation 131: 35-4

  16. Tokura W, Jack SL, Anderson T and Hoffman MT 2018. Long-term variability in vegetation productivity in relation to rainfall, herbivory and fire in Tswalu Kalahari Reserve. Koedoe: African Protected Area Conservation and Science 60(1) a1473. DOI:

  17. van der Merwe H and Hoffman MT 2018. Vegetation of Akkerendam Nature Reserve, Northern Cape: Delineation & dynamics over 100 years. Bothalia – African Biodiversity & Conservation. (In Press).

  18. van der Merwe H and Milton SJ 2018. Growth in three Karoo shrub species under various grazing treatments: the tracking of marked individuals over 25 years. African Journal of Range and Forage Science. DOI: 10.2989/10220119.2018.1508071.

  19. van der Merwe H and Milton SJ 2018. Testing the Wiegand-Milton model: A long-term experiment to understand the mechanisms driving vegetation dynamics in arid shrublands. Austral Ecology. Doi: 10.1111/aec.12651

  20. Balvanera P, Calderon-Contreras R, Castro AJ, Felipe-Lucia MR, Geijzendorffer IR, Jacobs S, Martin-Lopez B, Arbieu U, Speranza CI, Locatelli B, Harguindeguy NP, Mercado IR, Spierenburg MJ, Vallet A, Lynes L and Gillson L 2017. Interconnected place-based social–ecological research can inform global sustainability. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 29:1–7.

  21. Cardoso AW, Midgley JJ, Hoffman MT and Geldenhuys CJ 2017. Temperate forest dynamics and carbon storage: a 26-year case study from Orange Kloof Forest, Cape Peninsula, South Africa. Southern Forests: A Journal of Forest Science 79:1-7. DOI:

  22. Cronin K, Kaplan H, Gaertner M, Irlich U and Hoffman MT 2017. Aliens in the nursery: Assessing the attitudes of nursery managers to invasive species regulations. Biological Invasions 19(3): 925–937.

  23. Davis C, Hoffman MT and Roberts W 2017. Long-term trends in vegetation phenology over Namaqualand using GIMMS AVHRR NDVI3g dataset from 1982-2011. South African Journal of Botany 111: 76-85. DOI:

  24. Ekblom A, Gillson L and Notelid M 2017. Water Flow, Ecological Dynamics and Management in The Lower Limpopo Valley: A Long-Term View. WIREs Water. DOI: 10.1002/wat2.1228.

  25. Hirsch H, Gallien L, Impson FAC, Kleinjan C, Richardson DM, Le Roux JJ 2017. Unresolved native range taxonomy complicates inferences in invasion ecology: Acacia dealbata Link as an example. Biological Invasions 1-8. 10.1007/s10530-017-1381-9.

  26. Van der Merwe H and Geldenhuys C 2017. Proposed long-term monitoring protocol and applications for Aloidendron dichotomum populations. South African Journal of Botany

  27. Venter ZS, Scott SL, Strauss J, Jacobs K and Hawkins HJ 2017. Increasing crop diversity increased soil microbial activity, nitrogen-sourcing and crop nitrogen, but not soil microbial diversity. South African Journal of Plant and Soil 1-8. DOI:

  28. Bourne A, Holness S, Holden P, Scorgie S, Donatti CI and Midgley G 2016. A Socio-Ecological Approach for Identifying and Contextualising Spatial Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Priorities at the Sub-National Level. PLoS ONE 11(5): e0155235. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0155235.

  29. Carrick PJ 2016. Australia – still leaders, but the vanguard has been lost. Journal of Cleaner Production 84: 41. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.099.

  30. Chin A, Gillson L, Quiring SM, Nelson DR, Taylor MP, Vanacker V and Lovegrove D 2016. An evolving Anthropocene for science and society Anthropocene 13:1-3

  31. Davis CL, Hoffman MT and Roberts W 2016. Recent trends in the climate of Namaqualand, a megadiverse arid region of South Africa. South African Journal of Science 112(3/4): 89-97. DOI:

  32. Jack SL, Hoffman MT, Rohde RF and Durbach I 2016. Climate change sentinel or false prophet? The case of Aloe dichotoma. Diversity and Distributions. DOI:10.1111/ddi.12438.

  33. James JJ and Carrick PJ 2016. Toward quantitative dryland restoration models. Restoration Ecology 24: 85–90. DOI: 10.1111/rec.12393.

  34. Kranabetter JM, McLauchlan KK, Enders SK, Fraterrigo JM, Higuera PE, Morris JL, Rastetter EB, Barnes R, Buma B, Gavin DG, Gerhart LM, Gillson L, Hietz P, Mack MC, McNeil B and Perakis S 2016. A Framework to Assess Biogeochemical Response to Ecosystem Disturbance Using Nutrient Partitioning Ratios. Ecosystems 19:387-395. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-015-9934-1.

  35. Moore A, Flügel T, Hutton-Squire T, Hutton-Squire M, Humphrey G 2016. Size distribution of Baobabs on Kubu “Island”, Sowa Pan (northern Botswana): an indicator of late-stage evolution of the Makgadikgadi palaeo-lake and climate change? South African Journal of Geology 119:3, 535-544. DOI: 10.2113/gssajg.119.3.535.

  36. Okubamichael DY, Griffiths ME and Ward D 2016. Host specificity in parasitic plants – perspectives from mistletoes. AoB Plants 8:plw069. DOI:

  37. Okubamichael DY, Jack SL, de wet Bosenberg J, Hoffman MT and Donaldson JS 2016. Repeat photography confirms alarming decline in South African cycads. Biodiversity and Conservation. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-016-1183-x.

  38. Van Wilgen BW, Caruthers J, Cowling RM, Esler KJ, Forsyth AT, Gaertner M, Hoffman MT, Kruger FJ, Midgley GF, Palmer G, Pence G, Raimondo DC, Richardson DM, van Wilgen J and Wilson JRU 2016.  Ecological research and conservation management in the Cape Floristic Region between 1945 and 2015: History, current understanding and future challenges. South African Journal of Science 71:3, 207-303. DOI: 10.1080/0035919X.2016.1225607.

  39. Virah-Sawmy M, Gillson L, Gardner CJ, Anderson A, Clark G and Haberle S 2016. A landscape vulnerability framework for identifying integrated conservation and adaptation pathways to climate change: the case of Madagascar’s spiny forest. Landscape Ecology (31) 637–654. DOI: 10.1007/s10980-015-0269-2.

  40. White JDM, Jack SL, Hoffman MT, Puttick J, Bonora D and February EC 2016. Collapse of an iconic conifer: Long-term changes in the demography of Widdringtonia cedarbergensis using repeat photography. BMC Ecology 16:53. DOI: 10.1186/s12898-016-0108-6.

  41. Cramer MD and Hoffman MT 2015. The consequences of precipitation seasonality for Mediterranean-ecosystem vegetation of South Africa. PLoS ONE 10(12): e0144512. DOI: 10.1371/journal. Pone.0144512.

  42. Gillson L 2015. Evidence of a Tipping Point in a southern African savanna? Ecological Complexity 21, 78-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecocom.2014.12.005.

  43. Green L, Gammon DW, Hoffman MT, Cohen J, Hilgart A, Morrell RG, Verran H and Wheat N 2015. Plants, people and health: Three disciplines at work in Namaqualand. South African Journal of Science 111(9/10). DOI: 10.17159/sajs.2015/20140276.

  44. Masubelele M, Hoffman MT and Bond WJ 2015. Biome stability and long-term vegetation change in the semi-arid, south-eastern interior of South Africa: a synthesis of repeat photo-monitoring studies. South African Journal of Botany 101: 139-147. DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2015.06.001.

  45. Masubelele ML, Hoffman MT and Bond WJ 2015. A repeat photograph analysis of long-term vegetation change in semi-arid South Africa in response to land use and climate. Journal of Vegetation Science 26(5): 1013-1023. DOI: 10.1111/jvs.12303/full.

  46. Poulsen Z and Hoffman MT 2015. Changes in the distribution of indigenous forest in Table Mountain National Park during the 20th century. South African Journal of Botany 101: 49-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2015.05.002.

Refereed chapter in book

  1. Hoffman MT 2018. Land use, land cover and vegetation change in southern Africa. In: (Eds) Holmes PJ and Boardman J. Southern African landscapes and environmental change. Routledge, Oxon & New York. Pp. ISBN 978 1 138 68895 7 (hbk).
  2. Todd SW, Hoffman MT, Henschel JR, Cardoso AW, Brooks M and Underhill LG 2016. The potential impacts of fracking on biodiversity of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. In: (Eds) Glazewski J and Esterhuyse S. Hydraulic Fracturing in the Karoo: Critical Legal and Environmental Perspectives. Juta and Company (PTY) LTD. ISBN: 978-1-48-511818-3.
  3. Hoffman MT 2015. Environmental change in twentieth-century South Africa and its implications for land reform. In: (Eds) Cousins B & Walker C. Land divided, land restored: Land reform in South Africa for the 21st Century. Jacana, Cape Town. ISBN: 978-1-4314-0967-9.


  1. Rohde R and O’Connell S 2016. Hanging on a Wire: Photographs by Sophia Klaase. Fourthwall Books. ISBN 978-0-9922404-3-1. (Radio interview:
  2. Gillson L 2015. Biodiversity Conservation and Environmental Change: Using palaeoecology to manage dynamic landscapes in the Anthropocene. Oxford University Press. ISBN: 9780198713043.

MSc (Course work and mini-thesis)

  1. Russo A 2015. The prevalence of documentation discrepancies in CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) trade data for Appendix I and II species exported out of Africa between the years 2003 and 2012. Unpublished MSc Thesis. University of Cape Town, Cape Town. 39 pp. [Supervisors: M. Timm Hoffman and Markus Burgener].
  2. Cronin K 2015. Aliens in the Nursery: Assessing the awareness and attitudes of Cape Town nursery managers in regard to invasive species regulations. Unpublished MSc Thesis. University of Cape Town, Cape Town. 45 pp + appendices. [Supervisors: M. Timm Hoffman and Haylee Kaplan].